February 22, 1999 (ENS) - Someone is finally doing something
weather. As water authorities around a parched globe rush
weather modification specialists to replenish depleted
irrigation, drinking water and hydroelectric generation,
modification has become a growth business.
In the United States, at least 29 states have licensed
modification programs. Weather Modification Inc. of Fargo,
Dakota has been working with the Kings River Conservation
(KRCD) in California's Central San Joaquin Valley since
Responsible for one of the world's richest agricultural
KRCD water management agency has consistently contracted
seeding above the crucial Pine Flat Reservoir.
According to Weather Modification Inc. (WMI), "The program's
is to increase precipitation efficiency of clouds and
crossing the watershed." WMI says that artificially-induced
in the Kings River Conservation District replenishes groundwater
depleted by heavy use, allowing uninterrupted hydroelectric
Employing techniques little changed since Dr. Vincent
undertook the first weather modification experiments for
Electric in 1946, cloud seeding companies use aircraft
generators to release silver iodide particles into clouds
temperature and moisture are ripe for rain. Attracting
moisture, the silver iodide particles trigger formation
crystals which then fall as additional rain or snow.
TRC North American Weather Consultants has conducted more
weather modification projects to augment normal snow or
1950. Using radar and aircraft sensors to track atmospheric
TRC works to refill reservoirs and generate snow for ski
weather modification company also drops dry ice to dissipate
Based in Salt Lake City, Utah, TRC claims that precipitation
from its weather modification programs range from 10 to
over normal rainfall in the wintertime northern hemisphere
areas to as
much as 25 percent in tropical regions. A partial listing
company's cloud seeding operations conducted through 1994
repeated application of silver iodide to rainclouds over
California, Wyoming, Idaho, Colorado, Texas, Georgia,
Washington state, Iowa and British Columbia. Similar projects
enhanced municipal water supplies in Greece, Guatemala,
Dhabi, Jamaica and Mexico.
An 18 member U.S. Weather Modification Advisory Board
April, 1977 has sought in vain to introduce a national
modification policy. The board's efforts have been hampered
continuing uncertainties in weather prediction and weather's
trans-border aspects which have already sparked lawsuits
litigants claiming to be harmed by floods resulting from
Besides the unpredictability of its effects, cloud seeding's
drawback is that it requires clouds containing enough
silver iodide crystals to tip near-saturation into rain
Draining energy from budding hurricanes and hailstorms,
rain from a clear blue sky are the twin grails of more
Internationally recognized weather modification expert
Henderson founded Atmospherics, Inc. in 1960. En route
from his Fresno, California headquarters to attend the
Meteorological Organization's International Weather Modification
Conference, Henderson told ENS, "Within the weather modification
interest has always existed regarding discovery and development
potentially improved seeding materials."
According to testimony before a House subcommittee on
Technology in October, 1977 more than 60 countries were
active weather modification at that time. A discussion
at this early hearing called for "introducing perturbation
redirect the atmosphere's 'natural' energies" using infusions
chemical and electromagnetic energy.
Two decades later, a U.S. Air Force research study, "Weather
Force Multiplier" outlines how powerful "ionospheric heaters"
clouds generated by chemical condensation trails - contrails
behind airborne tankers could allow U.S. aerospace forces
to "own the
weather" by the year 2025. Military researchers are already
to influence the weather "by adding small amounts of energy
the right time and space," the report stated.
Located in Gakon, Alaska, an experimental U.S. Navy and
ionospheric heater known as the High-Frequency Active
Program (HAARP) has been projecting tightly-focused beams
radio-frequency energy into the atmosphere for the past
Bernard Eastlund, the inventor and original patent-holder
notes NATO interest in modifying the weather for military
In May, 1990 a NATO paper, "Modification of Tropospheric
Conditions" detailed how the atmosphere could be modified
electromagnetic radiation by spraying polymers behind
Absorbing microwaves transmitted by HAARP and other atmospheric
heaters linked from Puerto Rico, Germany and Russia, these
mirrors could heat the air, inducing changes in the weather.
U.S. Patent 4253190 describes how a mirror made of "polyester
could be held aloft by the pressure exerted by electromagnetic
radiation from a transmitter like HAARP.
A Ph.D. polymer researcher who wishes to remain anonymous
reporter that if HAARP's frequency output is matched to
magnetic field, its tightly-beamed energy could be imparted
molecules "artificially introduced into this region."
reactive state could then "promote polymerization and
the formation of
new compounds," he explained.
According to Eastlund, two U.S. companies make polymer
microwave-absorbing properties. Heat generation need to
weather can be fostered by adding magnetic iron oxide
polymers exuded by high-flying aircraft. Radio-frequency-absorbing
polymers such as Phillips Ryton F-5 PPS are sensitive
in the 1-50 MHz
regime, Eastlund pointed out. HAARP transmits between
two and 10 MHz.
Former Raytheon missile engineer Tommy Farmer has been
samples from the strangely lingering contrails covering
U.S. skies for
the past two years. "The chemist I had originally engaged
the material, during microscopic exam, had noticed yellow
impregnated into the filaments of the material," Farmer
Looking for living pathogens, the researchers discounted
non-organic material. "In retrospect," Farmer muses, "I
must wonder if
the orange yellow orbs might be an oxidizing ferrous alloy
described in Dr. Eastlund's commentary."
While admitting that an atmospheric mirror could be made
polymers, weather expert Henderson told ENS, "I'm not
too sure a
required very large mirror could be held aloft by strongly
energy. Right now the amount of heat required to alter
the weather far
exceeds any realistic system I can imagine."
HAARP's U.S. Air Force and Navy sponsors claim that their
will eventually be able to produce 3.6 million watts of
frequency power. But on page 185 of an October, 1991 "Technical
Memorandum 195" outlining projected HAARP tests, there
is a call by
the ionospheric effects division of the U.S. Air Force
Laboratory for HAARP to reach a peak power output of 100
watts. Commercial radio stations commonly broadcast at
A bigger objection to HAARPs ability to hurt the weather
the Ph.D. polymer researcher interviewed above, who points
jet tankers normally cruise at 10 kilometers (6.2 miles)
don't know if it is possible to create this [artificially
region so close to the ground. None of the patents I have
are claiming anything less than 50 kilometers (31 miles).
at the 10 kilometer height, it is hard to see how HAARP
anything to do with effects seen in the lower 48 states."
Whatever the reasons, this winter has produced some of
weather ever seen over the United States. Usually a hot
phenomenon, dozens of wintertime tornadoes have struck
Tennessee, Louisiana and Alabama this year. On February
temperatures in Chicago, Dayton, Charleston, Indianapolis
cities ricocheted between the low seventies and the twenties,
overnight snow falling in some of those cities basking
during the day.
While temperature records are normally broken by no more
than a tenth
of a degree, the World Meteorological Organization reports
temperatures up more than 0.6 degrees Celsius since the
end of the
As Pacific hurricanes packing 220 mile-per-hour winds
introduce a new
Category 6 into storm lexicons, tropical mahi mahi and
being caught off the coast of Washington state.
Department of Energy researchers Alan Schroeder and David
that 15 weather-related disasters in the U.S. since 1992
have cost $70
billion in damages and several hundred deaths from floods,
hurricanes, blizzards and hail storms.
With HAARP shut down for February and not scheduled for
until March, 1999, the race is on to modify climate being
brought to a
boil by carbon emissions generated by burning fossil fuels,
releases from melting permafrost and record levels of
cloud cover. Despite exotic technologies and squadrons
cloud-seeding aircraft, the people doing the most to change
weather may be us.
© Environment News Service (ENS) 1999. All Rights